Culture can be manifested in a variety of ways- as rituals, traditional practices, languages, and as material objects such as clothes and crafts.
Material culture refers to art, architecture, objects, food, clothes, and accessories that visually characterize a particular cultural practice. For instance, on seeing the Taj Mahal, one is instantly reminded of the Mughals and therefore, their culture. Similarly, clothes and accessories worn by any particular community define their culture. A kimono stands for Japanese culture, a kilt for Scottish heritage, and a Sarafan for Russian tradition. In India, the saree is worn by most females regardless of the religious community or state they belong to.
Many a time, cultures begin to be solely identified by their tangible elements such as clothes, architecture, literature and food. While sociologists and historians have done a good job at curating a list of clothes, food items, monuments and literature pertaining to almost every Indian culture, less is known about different headgear and their vitality to the Indian community that sports it. The following sections will describe the cultural significance of unique headgear donned by different communities in India.
SIKH PAGADI/ DASTAR
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The Pagadi/ Dastar is an essential element of the Sikh identity. All Sikh men who have been initiated into the community through the Amritdhari ceremony must compulsorily wear the traditional pagadi around their heads. It is also worn by Sikh men and women to cover their “kesh”- a significant tenet of their religion that requires them to grow their hair long and uncut. The traditional turban can be bought and worn in a myriad of colours. However, most local Sikh communities mandate the colour of turbans that their male members can wear. Similarly, restrictions are placed on the manner in which the turban is to be tied/wrapped around the head.
Popular culture has been quick to identify turbans as a visual representation of the Sikh culture and heritage. While one must agree that turbans represent the pride, honour, faithfulness, and gratitude that Sikhs experience as being a part of the community, they must not be mistaken as the sole identifier of Sikh men. Some choose not to wear the turban but that does not imply that they are not proud Sikhs.
Also See: Guru Nanak Dev: The First Sikh Guru
RAJASTHANI SAFA/ PAGADI
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Traditional Rajasthani communities wear the Safa or Rajasthani pagadi which was originally donned by Rajput kings during the seventh century. For a Rajasthani man, the colourful silk/cotton turban is a symbol of pride and honour. The turban not only has a symbolic representation but also protects a person from the severe desert heat of Rajasthan. The safa can be found in a variety of colourful shades and designs. In fact, different colours and designs are worn for different occasions. For instance, guests wear saffron during weddings to symbolize the vibrancy of the occasion and brown/dull blue shades during a funeral to observe solemnity.
Men can wear the safas in a number of different ways. Each local community in Rajasthan has claimed its unique way of tying the safa. The Bishnoi tribe exclusively wears white turbans, communities in Jaisalmer wear a bhatti, and the native population in Jodhpur dons the Jodhpuri pagadi. Multicolor safas are usually worn by small farmers, shepherds, and grazers all over Rajasthan.
Also See: Traditional Attire of Kashmir
Image by Santosh Wadghule via Flickr
The pheta is yet another variation of the turban usually worn by Marathi men. Men do not wear this headgear on a daily basis but only during a select few celebrations, occasions or festivals. Similar to the Rajasthani safa, colours play an important role in suggesting the grandeur and nature of the celebration. Phetas are usually handmade and can measure up to 6 metres in size. They are worn over the head in a manner that not only covers it entirely but also creates a frill design at the top. Different regions in Maharashtra such as Pune and Kolhapur have evolved their own technique of wearing the pheta. The tradition of wearing it began during the Peshwa rule when the pheta symbolised one’s elite caste/cultural status. Now, it is representative of the pride and happiness of being a part of the Marathi community.
Image by dwanjabi via Creative Commons
Topi is a small cloth-based headgear donned by Muslims in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. It is usually worn by Muslim men during namaz prayers on Friday but can be worn otherwise too. The small, flat cap can be found in different colours and shades, however, the most popular one is white. Besides being worn to cover their head before Allah, the topi signifies modesty or humility. Not wearing any covering before God is considered to be vain and prideful. For many converted Muslims wearing the topi is a compulsory practice that affirms their faith and religious beliefs. It is also believed that Prophet Muhammad mandated his followers to cover their heads by wearing the topi, and therefore, a huge majority of Muslims wear it every day.
Jawaharlal Nehru wearing Gandhi Topi by Dave Davis